This section will be added from time to time.

Other Documents relating to the Philippines:

Don't break the Visiyas! Click here to read this document

 

A little Disclaimer (Please read First)

One of my main hopes is to help, improve and make people happy, there are ways I know it can be done, if the right people with the right networking and the willingness could be shown the way :-)

----------------------------------------------------+ooOOOoo+--

Please note that some of the ideas and concepts I have illustrated below could benefit other places /countries as well, where that is needed.

To return to the main Random Thoughts page, Click here or the back button in your browser.

Overcrowded, jobless and no respect, A housing option, roof over there heads and a future, Option for the Creation of jobs and a cleanup of the city/countries image, Historic Conservation and the Preservation of the Countries Identity, Government Celebrity / status and greed for popularity

Overcrowded, jobless and no respect. Why?

There are several issues that arise with this argument call it that if you will, its an argument that is shared through many countries, sadly this not only effects the poorer countries, but there are many other countries which do have a large population that actually live very well, and have even there own celebrities who had made it big in there country, whereas sadly there are many that are far below, living uncomfortably in poor shelters or in illegal shanty towns.

The main reasons associated with the reasons for these shanty towns, is due to for example low employment or no employment at all.

Now many would see these as unsightly , and indeed they are, and prefer to shove these people out of the way, however, let me ask you this.

What would you do if you found yourself in there shoes?, no real house, no money or low money, and no incentives in a system that in the most part may to many in this predicament, feel very much forgotten. It was not always this way, and the Philippines is a beautiful country with a very lush history, first partially invaded by the Arabs then by the Spanish, who established the country for 300 years, till a change in the Ideas of the then rulers, who became more greedy and in the end the country was rescued by the us who then helped the Filipino to establish themselves more.

Anyway back to the topic, like my question I asked, what would you do if you ended up in there shoes, how would you react?

These people have in the end cause of being lead into this period of time, where the respect has gradually been eroding over time, have been unfortunately been forced to build shanty's, sometimes along raillines and other public areas, as they have lost the ability to even rent anywhere since they cannot afford any place currently on the market, to even rent, and this is very sad to see and as depressing to see this situation, many other people and the authorities, only care to push them along, with no where to go and this problem just gets worse, this has to change!

And a change can begin in many ways, there is a way, and it does require the type of people with the energy and the resources to make it happen.

The first of these is shelter, For this, since every other place requires a rent that costs way too much, there then becomes the need for a cheaper and more cost effective option, an option that would help to encourage a recovery for these forgotten people.

Currently, as these shanty's have been built illegally, even along the side of raillines for example, there is a railway police that have been gradually as per the Rejuvenation projects underway, result in these being demolished, cleared, but there is no destination set for these people that lose the only roof over there head they had, they are just pushed away and forgotten! with this problem it can lead to rebuilding more shanty's in another area, and or crowding an otherwise already full and unsafe area with more, this can be changed, this can be improved, these shanty's are very basic in many ways, there are some well built ones too, but the issue has arisen with the value of a home anywhere being simply too out of reach, with no help and no support, for these forgotten people.

A housing option, roof over there heads and a future.

The main reason that is associated with the building of shanty towns, is due to the unafordability of even the cheapest of places on the market today, many are still out of reach to afford to rent, many don't even have a stable income, to afford a real unit or a rented room.

With the rising costs today, referred to as the cost of living, this just creates more of a problem for these forgotten people.

Sadly, most of these people have lost there dignity pride and there confidence, feeling lost and forgotten, this could change if some people with the the right ideas and the resources could put into practice, methods that could benefit and give these people a chance to recover.

Too much focus is put on in relation to the rich, housing developments, apartment blocks and housing with the most expensive up to date features being built.

Like I said before some of these not only effect the Philippines but all over the world, the same excuses are around and in most countries the same thoughts are applied, anyone in the Poor bracket , is to be forgotten and swept away. (Rich vs Poor)

This is just unacceptable, there are ways, but too many are so greedy to even help the situation, but for those that are willing and have the resources, but may not realize the situation that much being that normally in many places anything relating to these forgotten are normally hidden from view and the media concentrates so much more on the rich, the government turns a blind eye to anyone that does not fit among the wealthy, which is a real shame.

However the need here in order to tackle the problem, is first housing / shelter, these people want mostly a roof over there heads, and with that, there should be a plan implemented to encourage a low income housing. Now you may wonder income for the poor how could that work if they have no steady income at all, I will get to that later in the next topic, however, this is the first step.

An idea I have had has been if someone were to design and construct a low cost dwelling that would be constructed in a prefab construction, made from modern materials, be quick to assemble and be mostly affordable to anyone, this would be very basic and would be similar to the usual features that a typical shanty would have but being purposely built and assembled as per government guidelines, for the general building code. These would as I said above only contain the necessary features to live, no Internet, no dishwasher, none of the expensive features that have been raising the price so much, most of these people only want a place they can eat and sleep.

Here is an example I have designed a cheap easy to manufacture prefab dwelling design that is based on the Traditional old Nipa hut style which could be manufactured from modern materials and incorporating only the real basics which would include a toilet and shower area, my concept I visualize could be assembled in rows to create a recovery village. This would be located outside of the city, and I would hope to be served by there traditional Jitney/Jeepney transport that would have a loading and unloading area at the entrance to these villages, Jeepneys could be located between each village or a group of them.

My concept can be read in more detail if you feel you may be able to do something on contributing the resources to put this idea into practice. The concept is not a complete design and would require additional specifications and final drawings to be drafted, since I have no contacts relating to or know of anyway to find out the Accepted Standard Philippine building codes nor am a qualified architect / engineer, not saying I can't design and draft well, but I don't have the qualifications in paperwork, so this would require someone who is qualified to finalize the design for production.

If you are someone that does have the resources and have the same willingness to help, that would be interested in reviewing my specifications document that includes concept renders for this, then please e-mail me and we could then discuss more about the design further.

stan_the_man13@hotmail.com

If you know of who I should contact in regards of this, then I would be very interested in knowing thankyou, surely there are some people in this world that would feel the same , yet actually do have the ability to make this a reality, remember this is only a starter, it is for the purpose of replacing the ugly shanty's with something that looks allot better that would be used to help people back onto the road to recovery, that is that once they were living in these and had been able to gain real employment, were able to save money they would then be able to move on to something more reasonable, its a temporary option that replaces the ugly shantys.note this concept is mine and is only 1 idea there could be many other designs, but the basis is the same, a need for a cheap easy to build, easy to maintain and for the low income lower than the average for the purpose of recovery of the otherwise forgotten people of the Philippines, that idea could be used elsewhere in the world as well, it can happen, it can work.

I am hoping this could encourage some people to think about this and develop concepts based on this idea, for the purpose of helping the recovery of the poor, it is one step to stamp out poverty.

Options for the creation of jobs and a cleanup of the city/countries image (It can be done)

I have discussed in the last topic about the ideas and a concept to help the need for housing and to remove the shanty's.

By now giving these people a place to live that is legal that has a style that helps to boost there respect, appreciation and builds confidence, you have begun to tackle the problem, the next part is to help give them jobs , jobs that would be plenty that would make a difference not just for themselves but also for the country.

You would now be wondering how, and the usual excuse here is there are no jobs, what jobs?

OK if you you ask a casual person in for example Manila and ask them what jobs could be filled, some may not recognize certain areas that they are used to and have been many times, so would be so used to there area to not notice that much on what could be done.

Ask someone from overseas, an overseas visitor like me for example, and what do we see, many things, since people from overseas are not used to the way that local Filipino's are used to, or in India same deal not used to how Indians live, and when someone from the Philippines would fly to any other known country, like Australia for example, they would find the place so immaculate, even with slight dirt or slight flaking of paint, it would to them still be immaculate compared to the standards they are used to.

People will get used to and take for granted what is considered normal for an area however if people can step back and really look at everything, one feature at a time, they would soon then realize that there are many things that can be done, many jobs.

There is another reason that many people like to regard as a reason for jobless poor, that being due to over population, in some ways that could be a case to but in history there has been the need for many employees, many companies long ago required lots of workers,and there were times that in ancient times that a large workforce was always in need to either defend or to construct monuments and buildings

Unfortunately another reason and this one is more recent which is effecting people all over the world, where companies have closed door or have upgraded to machinery versus workers, and the other reason has been due to the world economy suffering, with job losses, and sometimes plant closures, this does not help.

However there are things that a machine cannot replace and that in the mean time have been having a lack of maintenance.

Maintenance one of those issues where if something is not looked after and maintained it eventually decays and falls apart or rusts then ceases up or no longer looks that good anymore, why is that?

When a building is designed, built and fitted out, it has all the work put into it with the finest finishes possible, but once the owner moves in if there is no maintenance to keep it looking and in the condition as it was when built it slowly begins to deteriorate.

This was evident in some of the photos from the Olympic village from India that were published earlier on before it was ready, under all that dirt you could see the degree of workmanship was high class i.e. perfect grout lines, perfect joins in the masonry.

Why was it not kept maintained since its construction?

There is a degree of dirt that is normally accepted and things do age and that must be accepted but if there is low or no maintenance it does not help.

In essence its like an abandoned place that is in use, examples on youtube, are plentiful of abandoned places and the degree of deterioration that can happen to them, but its sad to see this happen in buildings and infrastructure that is actually not abandoned and is in use

.

Maintenance and repairs are some areas, that should be looked at, including some reconstruction may be required where needed. There is allot of work that is required that could be filled and they do have the workforce to fill these, but some of these rich and some times greedy governments, just don't see the need to create the funds needed to support endeavors that in the end could improve there countries image. Some examples of jobs that could be created, but not limited to could include

Cleaners, Maintenance workers, Maintenance of Infrastructure, roads, builders, electricians, painters, plasterers, that's just a few.

This could help boost the self esteem, pride and confidence for there country and for there future and in turn would help to clean up the current image that many people in the world see the Philippines, especially Manila as being dirty, old and not a good place to see, its an image that's still in need to break and change, this is not a poor country, there are so many that have made allot and are now rich celebrities, how did that happen? there's a great movie industry and many other industries that make allot, currently the government as many have seen only seems interested in serving shareholders and the rich, than helping the ones in true need that can help to boost tourism and clean up the world image.

The Philippines is a beautiful country and I know that this dirty neglect image can be broken if only the right people could be convinced that are willing and have the resources to help make the change, the way to help break this trend that's been going on for the last few decades is to regain control of the situation, the Philippines has not always been this way like I had mentioned earlier, there was a time when more care and pride was held for buildings, structures and gardens, For example take a look at the 1920's, I have seen photos though black'n white, showed a time full of pride.

In these old photos, people seemed more proud of there houses, businesses and public buildings, churches were kept nicely painted white or some pink , public buildings were well maintained and neat, everything was seen as been immaculate, none of theses photos, showed any real signs of deterioration like plaster or concrete falling off, piles of rubble, patchy , badly peeling paint and of course graffiti. These were kept reasonable even the older 18th century or colonial buildings though some signs of age and where there was the natural wood finish being left bare, they were kept in good condition. The latest neglect can be turned around, and what was the period of pride can be brought back, many people today over there feel that the government has become corrupt, only caring about the rich and investors, though, if the money could be put to better use to improve the people, then the country can rebuild into the proud country as it had been. And with this the country would then gain a better reputation and a better image, which would even help in pulling in the investors that they wish for.

I once even witnessed first hand some of the neglect, which was sad to see and a little off putting, being that I was an international visitor, not used to the day to day conditions for many areas over there, one example which was rather the first and this really is depressing to think that this is what welcomes many international Travelers is at the airport in Manila, not speaking of Terminal 1 which is the international terminal , I'm mentioning about one of the other smaller terminals as there are 3 terminals at NAIA, Manila, but as the usual saying goes First impressions effect the rest of the content, or trip, well the first impression's when you step off the plane, the terminal corridors to immigration and the rest of the terminal through the glass looked quite nice, till you arrived at the stairs down to immigration, down there it was quite off putting, it resembled more like a concrete carpark with plain bare untreated concrete walls with several simple booths setup, and did not give any sense of welcoming as such, this is one area that should be given some effort, since its the first point that a traveler arrives through and would spend till they finish through customs and the carousal, the people there were very friendly and helpful, though, once you reach Departures upstairs its allot more welcoming.

This is the countries first impression point and its sad that it does not afford a good impression first off, Mactan in Cebu was allot more welcoming, it offered a finish to the walls, compared to the bare concrete that Immigrations back in Manila offered at Terminal 2, by then a tourist would have had the first impression tarnished before even leaving the terminal or boarding another flight. Other conditional issues with maintenance involved the lack of cleaning and keeping maintained, assorted public buildings including the Airport, such as there seemed to be no issue in keeping windows clean, no cleaning could be seen for sometime, infact it was like the windows had last been clean only when the building was first built, otherwise was left to gain dirt streaks and end up quite dull, this was more noticeable at Manilas main airport, this is not a good view for the international traveler arriving or departing back home, these are things that are noticed while a traveler waits for there flight., what a great view to remember as there last sights of the Philippines to return home with, it was not only dirty windows, but while I was there I noticed damaged misplaced granite tiles, Dark black stains on the concrete facades. These were just some things, but it effects the reputation of the airport and or any public building / department.

To add to this was just the other day an event that happened for Terminal 1 at NAIA, which involved, once again lack of maintenance as 2 chunks of plaster caved in from the ceiling, injuring two staff members, the owner in this case blamed the building on its age being 29 years old, but that is not all, these things happen mostly on a structure if its been neglected and not cared about, no maintenance, no inspections, no cleaning and this is what can happen, there are many more buildings in the world that are over 100 years old and have not had there plaster come down, if they are maintained and cared for, other issues can also result depending on factors like sealing, leaks, mold, mildew, vibration, etc. if a building is neglected it will begin to crumble in time, it makes you wonder also if any inspections had been performed on the roof to see if any water was getting in, if the flashing was still ok.

There are so many beautiful old buildings that also are crumbling cause of neglect, buildings that were built with the utmost pride, and may have been cared for in the early years, but now are neglected of any care.

This is where some employment opportunities could exist, and where the pride could be recreated, just as the reputation of the owners could be saved.

Why for example would Manila's main airport be on a list of the worlds worst airports, and there be not much of a effort to clean that image up, even with basic maintenance and cleaning, when these owners battle to promote there services and products, image is one of the parts to having a surviving business, which should be one of the main issues for an owner to be concerned on.

What are the employment needs that are usually cried out and what other opportunities can be gained to help the community and the country to turn back the grime and neglect of the last few decades!

This not only relates to buildings as I just illustrated examples of public buildings, even private ancestral house museums aswell could be restored, but this matter also effects many other areas, the infrastructure that includes services like rail.

There's beginning to be a reputation relating to the rails and the condition of them around Manila, this even includes the trains themselves, now there is a program to replace these with newer models, though one wonders what the future would see for them, would they aswell end up resembling the ones there replacing now or will they be actually cared for?

Its another area for job opportunities, maintenance crews, cleaners, etc.

I have illustrated many ideas here where there could be some employment opportunities and how these areas could help in many ways, not only to help the people but help clean the countries reputation and bring pride back.

It wont happen all overnight, and it will take time, but the time to begin is now, and this will only happen through the efforts from a group of people who have a vision to see this happen, to realize the dream of helping the people regain there feet and there pride. Another idea to benefit and which may increase the willingness to start , could be through a special televised address to the people, something that could bring the nation together and give them a vision, a vision to be proud of and a vision that can be worked together this could include special programs to encourage people to take these jobs, and to help rebuild there future.

A goal to recreate the real pride of the country for all citizens that would help to project a better image to the world, but one person cannot be the only one left to do this alone, it takes a group of a few just as willing people with the resources and the drive to make this happen. The workforce is there ready, just give them the incentive and the support, and Improvements will begin straight-away. Help clean up the image, sweep away the dirt and grime, break the poverty, and help steer the country back into pride.

And the other bonus is a boost to tourism with a cleaner image, an image to be proud of, not just for the people but for there heritage.

Historic Conservation and the Preservation of the Countrys Identity

In this topic I will try to discuss or mention some of the issues that relate to the conservation and preservation of a countries identity, identity as in the culture and the history of a country. This can lead into many areas of discussion. Lets begin with the culture of a country, a culture relates to the established traditions over time to make a country the way is today and to be familiar around the world however this is beginning to be eroded by the European style and the American carefree lifestyle ideal that was first begun in America during the 1950s, which has now been spreading across the world, which has also pushed a type of "mall" culture.

Examples above are 3 Philippine and 2 Australian modern general styles

Which has generated a sort of urban carefree culture, that is where the majority of housing today that is pushed in the market , and that you hear allot of, other than apartments, is these village estates full of subdivision housing through out, where most houses adhere to one of a selection of maybe 4-6 basic plans, each one of these is identical, they also normally cost a fare bit,which is normally due to the cost of there finishes and the installed appliances, including but not limited to touch pad climate control, ducted air-conditioning, ducted heating or embedded heating coils in the concrete slab for example, and for the appliances, normally the more expensive European appliances including dishwashers and fridges with icecube dispenser's in the door. Many of these places are designed around the idea of entertaining and so may as well feature extra assorted large rooms like Rumpus rooms and entertainment rooms for example, there may be an extra dinning area and in many cases these are large with big open plan layouts. You would find that many of these also have hardly much of a yard and might only have enough room for hanging your washing and keeping some potted plants. The general idea for these is that you would only be more interested in relaxing in front of a TV or entertaining friends etc.

Another feature in many of these, is a lake and some parkland, which is the recreational area, reason for hardly much of a yard, as it is expected that you would go to the park or just go for a walk etc.

 

These normally don't feature much decoration if any and are standard, this style being suited in many other countries since there is no cultural design aspects or any certain architectural traditions associated with this. You could take a photo of one of these and show anyone without telling them where the photo was taken in the world, and it would have no style to give any clue or any resemblance to architecture of any traditions and so could mean it could have been in America, Australia or the Philippines as an example.

The way this is being pushed has this expectation that everyone would want this, however this is not true and as everyone has there own likes and dislikes, just as many people have hobbies where the ability is not catered for in these places.

Sure the world is shifting but not everyone follows the same ideas, and if it were then it would mean a type of conformity, something that leaves no room for originality .

There are many great heritage examples of traditional architecture that are still around today, but sadly many of these are being left to ruin and or torn down, to be replaced with modern bland and plain blocks in many cases, there are some great architects out there though, but some also tend to follow what has been established as a standard which leaves little room for any cultural design.

Traditional design in the Philippine's, what makes it Philippine compared to anywhere else in the world, much of that question related to what was before the 1960s and especially before and during the 1920s

as around the 1920's a style based on the old Balay Na Bato (House of stone) which is the essential Philippine traditional home , had a mixture of Spanish, Philippine and with the Art-Deco period, once it arrived in the country, leant many unique stainless and cut glass designs in the windows, it was the and still is regarded as the quintessential Philippine house.

This design though has the ability to be reintroduced today, as the basic Balay na bato comprised of a base in brick, stone or even concrete as concrete was widely used by the 1920s over there the upper story which had formally been the main house, was constructed of timber, now this these days could be said that with the low quantity of timber available these days that brand new ones of that style could not be built, that is untrue to a point since with steel or aluminum construction as a basis of many buildings , the timber boards look could be recreated with modern materials, following modern techniques of construction, cement sheeting embossed to represent a board texture has been used in other countries to success, this can be done there too, steel or aluminum framing replaces what were a wooden frame. Lower story could still be brick or even Vesa Block (concrete hollow block) there is another type of hollow core block that has been designed by one company over there that could also be used which would include insulation aspects for these walls.

Generally the old Balay Na Bato's design was very suited for the climate, there was plenty of air circulation and a generous amount of awning's were installed in many cases as well as many air vents, some were shuttered with sliding panels under the windows.

With the advent of the air conditioner, this design feature has basically been phased out, it was not just a functional design it served as decoration aswell, today's houses don't cater for much in way of decoration, the old railings being replaced with streamlined concrete or glass panel's.

The Balay na bato also was suited to the weather conditions, for its bases had fairly thick walls, in fact one example can be seen in Bacalod that had 1 meter thick walls made of concrete, internal walls were usually concrete or rendered brick, this meant that floods or typhoon's could not wash away and the building as long as only the lower story were effected, the walls could only require minimal repair if needed otherwise a quick clean was all that was needed, the house above would rest on top of this wall with its stilts, not embedded in the stone base but rather resting on top, any earthquake would only walk the house in its spot since there was no compression or pulling forces surrounding the columns, only the roof was also separate and had its own set of columns that would be embed in the ground, it essentially followed on from the old Ifugao, which was a small single room hut with slopped sides and a high roof resting on 4 legs that sat on a stone base, they walked during a tremor or earthquake, with no damage resulting, The Balay na bato was similar in principle and is why there are still many around from the 18th century including the old Tisa though most of these were either modernized in the 1920s-1950s or were built in the 1920s, that could have still had some modernization in the 19050' as well..

Both styles still have a good design for a basic house, and both have the possibility of being resurrected in modern materials, and techniques, yet still retain the traditional heritage design features, of what makes it Philippine.

For low cost dwellings, one should look at the old traditional designs, including that of the old Yakan for example and design something that helps to preserve the heritage and strive to raise the confidence level of even the lowest paid of people, replace the ugly shanties that don't have any style that were hastily assembled for the purpose of a roof over there heads. By replacing with something that relates to there heritage, you not only help to raise there confidence but also there pride and respect of there heritage.

Government Celebrity / status and greed for popularity

Isn't it something that tends to happen each time with many of these governments that they campaign so hard to be elected, with all these promises and what appear to be the will to help and do good for the people, but when they get elected, in many cases they tend to neglect these promises, and concentrate more of there energy to appear as a great personality in front of the rich and famous as well as other dignitaries, this leads to something like a popularity contest, they see it being good to mix with the celebrities and support investor greed. Celebrity status is important to these governments, and they will do something's to try to keep the media at bay, reasonably though some of these governments also control the media so in any case they will have the media on there side, catching there best angles each time, as they hang around the rich and famous. There celebrity status control of greed is more important to them, than actually fulfilling the promises that they had made before when they had been campaigning for office. The ideas they had for fixing the country and solving the problems just get side stepped and or forgotten, a very sad prospect though and this does leave a reputation of being corrupt though corruption of a government can take other avenues that could involve bribery, support from crime syndicates and or other unacceptable groups or methods.

But why is it that these governments would rather resort to abandoning the people they campaigned to help and abandon entirely the plan to fix there country, it makes you wonder though what was there real agenda of wanting to be in office! was it celebrity status, being among the world leaders and having access to the celebrities, being essentially above the law of even the police force in some cases,etc.

When a voter goes to the poles to vote for a leader, they expect that there choice will bring out someone that has the will to do good for the people, someone that would rise up with the energy, the drive to improve the public, not just the rich but for everyone, no matter, they expect someone who has a true vision for the country for the people and would respect the traditional heritage! There is one thing though and its a proven fact for previous leaders if they had been voted in the first place that is that if a leader, Councilor, prime minister/ President were to do do actual good and did action rather than words and this could be seen which the people had approved, then the people would be willing to reelect the leader to continue to help, to continue the job of improving and running the country or area for the people, if this was followed then a reelection and staying in office would ensure, People would then be happy.

Make the people happy and they will keep you in office, its something that they seem to forget to realize, and yet is so simple but they tend to forget about the little people, the workers and the poor, they encourage big bonuses for the bosses and give nothing to the lower classes, as the old saying goes, the richer get richer and the poorer get poorer. An example of miss trust for governments can be given as per the Australian federal election of 2010 and the state election for Victoria, each ended with no confidence in any, and so the situation of a combined government has arisen, to run the country, with a panel setup to discuss and work in running the country.

It is one thing with governments that most tend to believe in the end and follow is that they campaign for the people yet when there in office they think of them self more, Governments should in many respects should be thinking more in running the country to the best of there abilities, solve and fix problems as best as they can and not make promises that they cannot keep, and on this note of governments having the power to do good, for there people the reason they were elected to run, also should be the devotion to do good,.

As per in the Philippines, currently most people seem to regard there government as being corrupt and in fact don't have that much confidence in the government, its even been said by many that the only leader they had that was not corrupt that did good which exposed the corruption that was in the government departments prior to his office was former Philippine President Sergio Osmena 1944 - 1946. He has been regarded by many as being the best President that they ever had. Sometimes you wonder if a president or a leader did very well and that a current one was loosing confidence by the people that the current one would then take a look at how and why the one that was liked the most did very well, learn from those accomplishments, any others prior to the current that were thrown out, should also be a lesson, on why and how to not to end up like. Learn from the mistakes of the unsuccessful and build on the lessons of the successful. In essence a way to keep the people happy and truly rid the corruption label while not just running the country but improving it for all citizens.

 

To return to the main Random Thoughts page, Click here or the back button in your browser.

stan_the_man13@hotmail.com

To contact me by email please click this link otherwise copy the above text and paste In your selected email program

 

All content on this site, copyright of David. S. Cooper unless otherwise stated.